In Russia, they have created a vaccination method that allows you to deliver vaccines without the use of needles and syringes - a tiny matrix is delivered to the cells of the body using ultrasound.
Researchers from the Saratov StateUniversity and the Research Institute of Influenza named after A. A. Smorodintsev have developed a vaccination method in which the vaccine is delivered through the hair follicles deep into the body using therapeutic ultrasound. The scientists' work was published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry B.
In the method proposed by scientists, the vaccine is placedinto a tiny matrix of calcium carbonate and applied to the skin. This substance was chosen because this biologically safe compound is part of the bones and is not rejected by the body. To deliver particles to the skin, sonophoresis was used - exposure to ultrasound. It allowed the matrix to more effectively penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin, bypass the obstacles in the form of the stratum corneum and reach the immunocompetent cells through the hair follicles.
The researchers tested their method on mice.One of them was administered the vaccine by the classical method - by injection into the muscle - and the other by the new needle-free method. The scientists then measured the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the blood plasma of the experimental subjects, one of the classes of antibodies with which the body can destroy infectious agents.
In mice vaccinated in the usual way,antibodies prevailed, which are responsible for humoral immunity - due to antibodies - and persist, as a rule, for several months. When percutaneously vaccinated, mice had more IgG2 antibodies responsible for cellular immunity - due to the work of special immune cells - and contributing to longer protection.
According to experts, their approach is safe,hygienic and may become an alternative to classical vaccination in the future. At the same time, scientists have yet to figure out which types of vaccines can be used with their method.