General, Research, Technology

Were there other universes before the Big Bang?

“Before the Big Bang, there was an earlierThe universe that can be observed today. The Big Bang was not the beginning, ”said the English physicist and mathematician Sir Roger Penrose during the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics. The British The Telegraph also cites the words of an outstanding scientist: "Something existed before the Big Bang and this something will continue to exist in the future." The Nobel laureate believes that our Big Bang began with what was the distant future of an earlier era. The reason he thinks so lies in the mysterious physics of black holes - back in 1964, nine years after Einstein's death, Sir Roger suggested that black holes are an inevitable consequence of General Relativity (GR). His groundbreaking paper is still considered the most important contribution to the theory of relativity since Einstein and the Big Bang proof.

According to Penrose, the universe will continue to expand until all of its matter eventually decays, after which a new one will appear in its place.

What are Hawking Points?

Penrose found six "warm" spots in the sky,called "Hawking points", which are about eight times the diameter of the Moon. They got their name in honor of the British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking, who argued that black holes "let through" radiation and eventually evaporate completely. The time it takes for a black hole toevaporate completely, vastly, possibly more than the age of our present universe, so they cannot be detected. However, Penrose believes that "dead" black holes from previous universes or "eons" are now observable. If he's right, this proves the correctness of Hawking's theories.

We have a universe that keeps expanding and expanding. All the mass in her disintegrates and in this crazy theory of mine it is the distant future becomes the Big Bang of another Aeon. Black holes in this other universe coulddisappear due to Hawking evaporation and create points in the sky which I call Hawking points. We see them. These points are about eight times the diameter of the Moon and represent slightly warmed areas. To date, we have strong evidence for the existence of at least six of them.

2020 Nobel Laureate in Physics, Sir Roger Penrose.

Earlier this year in Monthly Issues of theThe Royal Astronomical Society has published Sir Penrose's work on Hawking Points. The article presents observational data of numerous previously unobserved anomalous round spots in the cosmic microwave background radiation (relic radiation), with a significantly increased temperature.

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The relic radiation is, in fact,electromagnetic radiation left over from the earliest cosmological era that permeates the entire universe. The CMB is believed to have formed some 380,000 years after the Big Bang and contains subtle indications of how the first stars and galaxies formed.

Hawking points Are, in fact, dead black holes thatexisted before the Big Bang (which gave birth to our universe) and which outlived their own universes. However, now they are at the end of their lives and emit radiation, evaporating into nothing. The Nobel laureate notes that “our Big Bang began with something that was the distant future of the previous Aeon (Universe), and it would contain the same black holes as in our Universe, passing through Hawking's vaporization. They are the ones who would produce these points in the sky, which I call Hawking points. "

You will be wondering: Can the Universe exist indefinitely?

Controversial theory

As noted by The Telegraph, this idea is controversial, althoughmany scientists believe that the universe exists in a continuous cycle of expansion, occurring before the "Big Compression", followed by a new Big Bang. Penrose also noted that in the past, black holes were considered theoretically existing objects. Read more about what a black hole looks like and how scientists managed to photograph it in this article.

In 1988 Roger Penrose shared the Wolf Prize in Physics with Professor Stephen Hawking for his collaborative work on black holes.

Sir Roger shared the Nobel Prize in physicswith Professors Reinhard Herzel of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and Andrea Guez of the University of California, who proved that the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A (Sagittarius A *) is located in the center of the Milky Way.

Recall that black holes are the mostmysterious objects in the universe, not counting, of course, dark energy and dark matter. In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to scientists from the LIGO and VIRGO collaborations for the discovery of gravitational waves - the ripples of spacetime caused by the collision of two supermassive black holes. This discovery marked the beginning of a new era in gravity research.