For centuries, the world's oceans have beenone of the main ways of communication between civilizations that lived on different continents. Millions of ships sailed across the seas and oceans carrying passengers and valuable cargo such as works of art. For completely different reasons, many of these boats sank. Some of them were of flimsy construction, and some were attacked by pirates. According to UNESCO, at the moment at the bottom of the seas and oceans liemore than three million ships, but this, of course, is not accurate data. From time to time, scientists manage to discover them, and many old items come from the bottom, which are transferred to the largest museums in the world. By studying these artifacts, researchers learn a lot of interesting things about the life of people of past centuries. As part of this article, I suggest you familiarize yourself with some of the most interesting ship cemeteries that scientists have ever found.
UNESCO - a United Nations (UN) agencyon education, science and culture. The institution is engaged in the study of national cultures and solving problems in the field of social sciences and geology.
- 1 Sunken ships
- 2 Sunken Titanic
- 3 Sunken Queen Anne's Revenge
- 4 Sunken ships in the Aegean Sea
- 5 The largest ship graveyard
Sunken ships are considered real"Time capsules", looking at which you can learn a lot of interesting things about the everyday life of their crews and people of distant times in general. For example, statues and other works of art have been discovered by scientists at the wrecks of ancient Greek and Roman ships. All of them were carefully pulled ashore and sent to museums. For example, in 1900, not far from the island of Antikythera (Greece), a bronze statue of the Antikythera youth was found. Approximately the same historical masterpieces have been found inside many other ships and their number, perhaps, is innumerable. But, let's move away from the topic of ancient Greek ships and consider a few more recent examples of the discovery of sunken giants.
The huge steamer "Titanic" was built in the period from1909 to 1912 commissioned by White Star Line. The largest ship of the time, she set out on her maiden voyage on April 10, 1912, en route from Southampton (England) to New York (USA). Four days after sailing, he collided with an iceberg and sank 600 kilometers from the island of Newfoundland (Canada) within three hours. In one of the most famous disasters, more than 1,500 people died - there were 2,224 passengers in total, and only 706 of them survived.
Over the decades of being at the bottom, the Titanic has becomehabitat for many organisms. When scuba divers descended to the ship, they found at least 28 species of animals in its vicinity. On the metal surface of the sunken ship, a huge number of bacteria were found that live off rust. In honor of their habitat, they were named Halomonas titanicae. Subsequently, these bacteria were proposed to be used to destroy sunken ships, which in any way interfere with human activities.
It is impossible to lift the Titanic from the bottom, becauseits base is too fragile to use the technique. At the moment, it is under the protection of UNESCO and remains interesting for many scientists and film directors. Most likely, we will never see this ship on land. Unless one day our planet will lose all the water and aliens will fly to it. It is they who will be able to examine the mysterious ship with a very rich and tragic history.
"Ghosts of the Abyss: Titanic" of 2003 is considered one of the best documentaries about the legendary ship. I recommend for viewing!
Sunken Queen Anne's Revenge
In 1710, in the English city of Bristol, there wasa ship named "Concorde" was built. In 1713, the ship passed into the hands of Spain, and then began to be used for the transport of goods by the French. During one of the voyages in 1717, the ship was attacked by a team of pirates led by Captain Edward Teach, also known as "Blackbeard". Contrary to stereotypes about the cruelty of pirates, he was a wise leader, avoided the use of force and after his attacks on the ships there were no traces of torture and murder. It is he who is the prototype of many characters in the works about pirates.
After the capture of the Concorde, he increased the number ofguns from 14 to 49 pieces, changed the interior and renamed it "Queen Anne's Revenge". According to historical data, he ran aground in 1718 and sank. However, it was not possible to find the location of the ship's remains for a long time. This happened only in 1996, thanks to the work of the research company Intersal. Evidence that scientists are dealing with the ship of Edward Teach did not appear until 2011. Was this evidenced by such finds nearby the remains of a ship, such as a bronze coin from the 1700s? the remains of dishes made in honor of the rulers of those times and a syringe that was used to treat venereal diseases.
The Concorde is not only an ancient ship, but also one of the most famous aircraft
As it turned out, the ship did not go into the depths of the seas andoceans, because his remains were found only at a depth of 7 meters. In addition to the aforementioned items, the researchers managed to find 21 guns that were produced in different countries. The abundance of musket bullets, cannonballs and other small arms suggests that the pirate crew of more than 400 people was well armed.
Exploring the Queen Anne's Revenge dumping sitecontinues to this day. More information about him and the pirate Edward Teach can be found in the movie "Pirates of the Caribbean: Blackbeard". In it, the stereotype that pirates were bloodthirsty robbers just well collapses. In the film, they are presented as ordinary people who wanted to achieve at least something. Again, I recommend!
Most of them were located in the areaFourney archipelago. In the course of studying the remains, scientists found out that the ships were built at different times. And we are not talking about a couple of decades, but in the time interval between 525 BC to the 1850s. The researchers were most interested in ancient ships. For example, they managed to find a Greek ship that was built around 525 BC. Not far from it, merchant and cargo ships sank.
Inside them, scuba divers found only pilestableware. Apparently, in this place, ships were sinking that moved along the trade route that connects the Aegean and Black Sea with Cyprus and Africa. The reasons for their flooding are still unknown. They may have been caught in storms or attacked by pirates. Based on the large interval between the dates of their flooding, it can be assumed that the reasons have always been different. Although, it is very strange that so many ships have gathered in one place.
Explorers often find Viking ships. One of them, which has lain under water for over 1000 years, was recently told by my colleague Artem Sutyagin.
The largest ship graveyard
It may seem that the 23 ships lying at the bottom -that's a lot. However, no. One day, the Black Sea Maritime Archeology Project research group, which consists of British and Bulgarian scientists, discovered a cemetery with 40 ships. All of them lie at the bottom of the Black Sea and, to a greater extent, belong to the Byzantine and Ottoman empires. The researchers found this place quite by accident when they wanted to draw a map of the seabed at a depth of 1800 meters. And it was necessary to do this in order to find out how the flooding of coastal areas after the Ice Age affected the ancient people.
The ship of researchers covered about 1250 kilometersalong the coastline of Bulgaria. It was then that scientists noticed that there was something at the bottom. In the end, they managed to find five hundred ships, which were also built at completely different times and ended up at the bottom for completely different reasons. Many types of ships were known to science only from descriptions from historical documents. So, thanks to the find, they were able to literally touch the mysterious objects of antiquity. Due to the fact that the remains of the ships were in an area with a minimum concentration of oxygen, they are perfectly preserved.
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On the topic of sunken ships, I advise you to read moreone material on Hi-News.ru. Fortunately, we have plenty of them. For example, in 2019 I talked about how scientists managed to find one of Christopher Columbus's ships. This find is considered unique because many other vessels have been eaten away by the so-called "Shipworms". Inside the article, you will also find a video that shows exactly what a sunken ship looks like under water.