Many people today are looking forward to the moment whenmankind will be able to move to Mars and begin to study a distant planet. But even our Earth itself is not fully explored - it is full of places where no man's foot has yet gone. We have already visited the tops of giant mountains and literally touched the clouds with our hands. But we still cannot go down into deep caves. We are hindered by many factors - for example, the lack of suits and related equipment necessary for descent to great depths. Also, some caves are filled with fresh water, that is, researchers need not only to descend to a dangerous depth, but also to be able to survive underwater conditions. Imagine that a person begins to descend to a great depth and is lost in a dark cave - even the very thought gives goosebumps, because it sounds like a real thriller. And some researchers really want to overcome such a dangerous path. Some of them are still trying to study the structure and find out the depth of the deepest submerged cave - the Boundary Abyss.
The deepest abyss
The above cave is close toCzech city Hranice and has been of interest to scientists for a long time. At first glance, its entrance has no remarkable features. Only now, having dropped 70 meters down, the researchers see a column of fresh water. In 1995, the daredevils managed to dive to a depth of 205 meters and it was then that the cave received the title of the deepest in the world. It was quite clear that the depth reached was far from the limit. The researchers needed even more advanced equipment to study great depths. The opportunity to re-check the depth of the cave appeared only ten years later.
In 2016, the Polish researcher ChristophStarnavski (Krzysztof Starnawski) can dive to a depth of 370 meters, but I could not go further. To explore further depth, he used a remote robot that managed to overcome another 34 meters. The device could have sunk even lower, but its cable was too short. Ultimately, the researchers found out that the depth of the Granitskaya Abyss is more than 474 meters (including the length of the descent to the water). And this is also far from the limit!
The depth of the flooded cave
According to the scientific publication Science Alert, recentlyresearchers have discovered new details about the mysterious abyss. This time, neither man nor robot dived into the water. Scientists have used more scientific methods. For example, they passed electricity through rocks to find out how high their electrical conductivity is. Using this method, they studied the approximate structure of the abyss and identified the approximate location of the voids. They also plunged several small explosives into the water and tried to determine the depth of the cave based on the propagation of shock waves.
Researchers were unable to name the exact depthcaves, but from now on they believe that it is more than 1000 meters. If this is true, then the Border Abyss can be considered the deepest of its kind. Earlier this rank was held by the well of Merro, which is located 20 kilometers from Rome (Italy). The diameter of the well is 180 meters, and at a depth of 80 meters there is Pozzo del Merro lake covered with ferns. The bottom of this lake has not yet been discovered. When the researchers lowered the remote-controlled vehicle into it, it settled at a depth of 390 meters. Professional divers also went down there, who noted that at great depths it was easy to catch an attack of claustrophobia - fear of confined space.
See also: Under the ice of Antarctica discovered the deepest canyon in the world
How are caves formed?
On the topic of the reasons for the formation of so deepthe caves are controversial. Previously, researchers believed that the Granitskaya Abyss formed from the bottom up. The water it contains has been found to contain a high concentration of carbon and helium, which usually come from the depths of our planet. Based on this, scientists have put forward the assumption that the cave was formed from the bottom up. That is, acidic groundwater boiled under the influence of the hot earth's mantle and gradually destroying the ground layers. Only in the course of a recent study, the opinion of researchers about the origin of the cave has changed.
Henceforth, they do not rule out that educationcaves could occur from the bottom up. This is evidenced by at least two features of the abyss. Firstly, it was formed in karst - an area where water very quickly dissolves rocks and forms voids. Most likely, over millions of years, rainwater gradually formed cracks in the earth, which expanded more and more over time. Secondly, in the course of a recent study, scientists found traces of the fact that once upon a time this place was already very deep.
The second version seems to be the most plausible. The fact is that if the cave was formed from the bottom up under the influence of hot water, at some period of time it would splash to the surface. And acidic water would obviously leave traces on land. And scientists did not find them, although they could have been for a long time.
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It is important to note that this article was aboutthe deepest caves. And the deepest place in general is still considered the Mariana Trench, whose depth is about 11 thousand meters. At the moment it is very dirty and why this is bad news, you can read in this material.