Beauty will save the world! There is such a common expression. But just if you think about it, then this is not entirely true. There are so many insanely beautiful military aircraft that are designed to take it away. Protect too, but still at a high price. And if it’s even less clear with airplanes, and they can just drive away or accompany the targets of a potential enemy in an air battle, then the submarine is a much more ultimate thing. Its task in the case of the use of weapons is exclusively destruction. Once they hunted ships, but now they can wipe almost entire states off the face of the earth, but they are often also very beautiful.
- 1 When did submarines appear
- 2 Bet on the nuclear submarine fleet
- 3 How the largest submarine was created
- 4 How is the submarine "Typhoon"
- 5 TTX submarine ”Typhoon”
When did submarines appear
The first submarines appeared inthe century before last, but there was not much use from them, and in fact they were needed only for the demonstration of technology. Later they became a real military unit. First diesel, then nuclear, but still very dangerous. There were even cases when they were used not only for military purposes. For example, in the first half of the last century theyused by the German army in order to sink peaceful British ships. It should be noted that the aim was precisely the vessels, and not the people who were allowed to leave the ship, but the fact remains.
Unlike a conventional surface vessel, an underwaterthe boat has the ability to deliberately change its draft until it is completely submerged under water. It can go to depth by filling the tanks with main ballast overboard water. Surfacing due to restoration of buoyancy
The first to introduce the idea of submarines was Leonardo da Vinci, but later he destroyed his drawings, fearing "submarine warfare." However, already in 1578 Englishman William Bourne described a Greenland submarine of seal skins with snorkel (exhaust pipe) that fought in the Black Sea.
In Russia, the first submarines were developed even under Peter the Greatbut their designs were also far fromperfection. And for the first time in battle, the submarine was used in the war for US independence (1775-1783) and was called the “Turtle”. True, she was never able to harm the attacked ship. She was supposed to fix the mine on the bottom, but was discovered and had to blow it up just to hide.
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Until 1944, submarines were inmostly surface ships. Due to the design imperfection, they could not go under water for a long time and used the dive only to pass a dangerous section or prepare an attack. Later they gradually began to switch to a longer stay under water, and now this is not a problem at all, since the supply of supplies on board is large, life support systems (oxygen, reprocessing, etc.) are good, and the supply of nuclear fuel is enough for months of autonomous navigation .
Bet on the nuclear submarine fleet
Nuclear technology is too temptingnot to use it for military purposes. I'm not even talking about the atomic bomb, the principle of which is also based on a chain reaction of fission of atoms and the release of energy. Just in the case of the bomb, unlike the power plant, the fission of atoms is uncontrolled.
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In long-distance autonomous navigation and combatNuclear boats on duty are good because they do not produce as much noise as diesel, have a larger size and can be on duty for months in any part of the world's oceans.
In the early 70s, the main players in the marketnuclear submarines were, it is not difficult to guess, the USSR and the USA. It was they who made a bet on the development of the nuclear fleet and did a lot of success in this. Especially, everyone wanted to have more boats capable of carrying ballistic missiles.
The size of the boats gradually grew and as a resultthe title of the largest submarine in the world passed from one country to another. One of the most famous American projects was called "Ohio." These boats were capable of carrying up to 24 intercontinental ballistic missiles. The USSR’s response was a submarine of project 941. The conventional name for the boat was “Shark”, but it is better known as “Typhoon”. We’ll talk about her today.
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How the largest submarine was created
The creation of the project 941 boat was led by an outstanding Soviet designer Sergey Nikitovich Kovalev. He was repeatedly awarded state awards and for several decades he led Leningrad Central Design Bureau “Rubin”. The team of this bureau was entrusted with the work on the king boat. Construction was carried out at the Severodvinsk enterprise "Sevmash".
The second name of the boat - “Shark” - appeared afterof the fact that Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee, introduced the boat to delegates to the Party Congress and the rest of the world in 1981 under this name. In general, we can say that both names reflect well the essence of such a boat. She, as a typhoon, must demolish everything in her path and as a shark, she is the most dangerous “predator” in the ocean.
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How is the submarine Typhoon
The boat is just huge. Its length is 173 meters and a width of 23 meters. At the same time, the total displacement is almost 50 thousand tons (three times more than the American "analog"). The design is made a little non-standard and instead of the usual parallel arrangement of two strong cases, it has hermetic capsule-type compartments. They are designed for the torpedo compartment and the central post, as well as adjacent to the compartment of electronic weapons.
Total the boat has 19 compartmentswhich are interconnected, but in casesurfacing from under the skin of ice the bow of the cabin was significantly strengthened. There are special sheets around the cabin in order to prevent even a thick layer of ice from threatening it.
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TTX submarine ”Typhoon”
According to the maximum underwater speed, the boats are differentthe designs were not very different and they were all able to move at a speed of about 25 knots (about 45 km / h). But the Soviet giant could carry combat duty for six months and dive to a depth of up to 400 meters, with an additional 100 meters in reserve.
In the bow there were horizontalfolding steering wheels, and the drive was carried out by two seven-blade propellers, each of which was equipped with a 190-megawatt nuclear reactor and a turbine with a capacity of 50,000 horsepower.
The crew of this monster consisted of 160 people,more than a third of whom were officers. The conditions of accommodation on board were very comfortable, if I may say so about the submarine. For officers, 2 and 4 berth cabins were provided. Small sailors were provided for sailors and foremen, in which washbasins and televisions were installed.
In addition, all rooms were servedair conditioning, and in their free time on duty, the crew could visit the pool, gym, sauna and even a “living” corner. Not a fighting vehicle, but a sanatorium. Tell us in our Telegram chat what you think about this.
Although, the combat potential of the boat is also enough. In the event of a nuclear conflict, the Typhoon can simultaneously defuse an “ammunition” of 20 nuclear missiles (R-39) across the enemy, each of which will be equipped with ten 200-kiloton multiple warheads. This is enough to make an uninhabited territory equal in size to the east coast of the United States for many years.
And that’s not all. In addition to powerful weapons, on board there are more than twenty conventional and jet torpedoes, as well as MANPADS “Igla”. In order to “charge” the boat, the ship “Alexander Brakin” was specially created, designed to carry 16 SLBMs (ballistic missiles of submarines).
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At the moment, three nuclear submarines are in operationBoats Typhoon. Two of them are in reserve, and one is used for testing the Bulava missile system. In total, from 1976 to 1989, six boats of this type were lowered from the stocks of the Sevmash plant.