According to the calculations of scientists, people have learned to dotattoos about 60 thousand years ago. Then the drawings were applied to the skin not only for beauty, but also as a sign of people's belonging to certain communities. People also believed that certain tattoos were able to protect them from evil spirits and give them unusual abilities. It doesn't matter when the tattoo was made - thousands of years ago or just yesterday. The result will be such that the drawing on the body will remain for life... Colors will fade over time, but the imagewill still be clearly distinguishable. The fact that ink drawings remain on the skin for thousands of years is a very strange and illogical phenomenon. After all, the human skin is constantly renewed and, in theory, the stained cells should eventually separate from the body and disappear. But why do tattoos stick so tightly to the skin? Scientists have found that all this is due to the unique abilities of the human body.
How are tattoos done?
The tattooing process can be consideredon both sides. The first is from the point of view of the tattoo artist and his client. Hair is shaved off the tattoo area and an antiseptic is applied. The sketch of the drawing is printed on special paper and transferred to the skin as a stencil. Then the tattooing process begins - first, the tattoo machine outlines the contours, and then paints over the inner areas. First, black areas are drawn and only then colored ones. After drawing the picture, the client undertakes to carefully monitor it, because the skin is severely injured. It is necessary to apply antiseptic and wound healing agents.
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In terms of physiological processestattooing looks much more complicated. During the operation of the tattoo machine, all layers of the human skin are damaged. Swelling occurs in the damaged area, which is associated with the expansion of tiny blood vessels. Immune macrophage cells accumulate around the pattern, which begin to absorb everything that interferes with the normal life of human tissues. Dyes are perceived as unnecessary objects, but macrophages cannot cope with them and the dye remains inside the cells.
At the same time, the recovery process beginsdamaged skin. Cells called fibroblasts begin to produce fibers that fill the defects formed in the tissues. The result is that they seem to braid the paint particles with a protective mesh, which separates them from neighboring fabrics. Subsequently, active division of skin cells begins, as a result of which the damaged area of the skin is closed.
See also: How will tattoos look in old age?
Why aren't tattoos fading away?
In an article on whether dust is particlesof human skin, we learned that every hour a person sheds about 1000 dead skin cells. Based on this fact, it would be logical to assume that over time, the particles of the skin colored during tattooing should be shed and lead to the disappearance of the pattern. Scientists for a long time could not understand the reason for the longevity of tattoos until French researchers conducted an experiment involving several mice. The results of the scientific work were published in the scientific journal Journal of Experimental Medicine.
They tattooed the tails of severallaboratory mice and followed the reaction of their bodies. The aforementioned immune cells, macrophages, as expected, attacked the dyes. Upon further consideration of the processes, it was found that after the death of cells, the paint is drawn in by neighboring cells and this happens almost all the time. To verify this, the scientists conducted another experiment, during which they transplanted a tattooed area of skin from one mouse into another. After six weeks, the stained cells were absorbed by the cells of the new host.
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This discovery is interesting not only becauserevealed another mystery around tattoos. Perhaps thanks to the new knowledge, scientists will be able to develop a new method of tattoo removal, after which there are no traces. At the moment, tattoo removal is carried out under the influence of a laser. The rays destroy skin cells and cause them to release dyes. But the result is rarely perfect, because the outline of the tattoo is still visible.