The nature of the mysterious dark energyresponsible for accelerating the universe - one of the most exciting issues of astronomy and physics. Scientists believe that this can be either vacuum energy, corresponding to the cosmological constant of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR), or an energy field that changes over time. The answer to this question may be the starting point. fundamental revolution in physics. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters giveinformation about the expansion rate of the Universe, which is why the mission of the German-Russian apparatus Spectrum-X-ray-Gamma, Spectrum-RG, (SRG) with the eRosita X-ray telescope on board, received a new map of the observable Universe.
X-ray radiation Is an invisible electromagnetic ionizingradiation. X-rays, discovered in 1895-96 by the German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen, are able to penetrate all substances, to one degree or another, losing their intensity.
Since gravity rules everything in the universe,it dominates the evolution and formation of galaxies. According to the Max Planck Institute website, “X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide information on the rate of expansion of the Universe, the fraction of mass in visible matter and the amplitude of the primary fluctuations that are the source of galaxy clusters and the entire structure of the Universe.” Researchers also report that the eRosita tool, which scans the depths of space and explores the structure of the universe, has received a new map of the night sky. The image captures the many so-called violent acts in space - cases where matter is accelerated, heated and crushed.
Transmission of the first data set receivedeRosita, was completed in mid-June. An X-ray telescope detects more than a million x-ray sources. According to the researchers, this is almost the same number that was discovered in the entire history of x-ray astronomy. For six months, astronomers have doubled a known number of radiation sources. Let me remind you that "Spectrum-RG" was launched in July last year and sent to an observation position about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth.
The data is staggering! I hope our work will revolutionize X-ray astronomy.
Kirpal Nandra, who leads the high-energy astrophysics group at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany.
X-ray map of the universe
On the most detailed and extensive map of the starry sky in the world about a million x-ray sources. The strip in the middle is the plane of the Milky GalaxyA path whose center is in the middle of an ellipse. Astronomers note that the card was color coded to help describe what was happening. Roscosmos experts explained to the Russian Air Force News reporters that “blue rays are photons with an energy of 1-2.3 kiloelectron-volts, which corresponds to a temperature of emitting hot substance from 10 to 25 million degrees Kelvin. Green areas are a range of 0.6-1 keV, and the temperature of the substance is from 60 to 10 million degrees. Reds are the “coldest" - 0.3-0.6 KeV and 3-6 million degrees. "
On most of the plane, galaxies dominatehigh energy sources. This is partly due to the fact that a large amount of gas and dust absorbed and filtered out low-energy radiation. Sources include stars with strong, magnetically active and extremely hot atmospheres. The green and yellow colors that make up the mushroom-shaped object are hot gas inside and right outside our Galaxy. This material captures information on the formation and evolution of the Milky Way.
The diffused red glow in the upper and lowerparts of the map - mainly X-rays from hot gas far beyond the Milky Way. White specks are a signature of supermassive black holes. Amazing but about 80% of all sources on the new map are giant black holes, which are in the centers of distant galaxies.
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Some of the supermassive black holes on the map,were noticed when the universe was younger than one billion years old, which is less than 10% of its current age. Over the next 3.5, Spectr-RG and the eRosita instrument installed on it will make seven all-Russian surveys, which will allow the telescope to refine data, remove errors and penetrate deeper into space in search of weak sources of x-rays that cannot be detected in any other way. .
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One of the mission’s key tasks is tomap the distribution of hot x-ray gas that illuminates large clusters of galaxies. Astronomers hope that this information can lead them to new ideas about how the universe works and how it has changed over time. It is possible that in this project there will be clues about the nature of dark energy.