General, Research, Technology

How a "perpetual motion machine" works and examples of its design

The perpetual motion machine excites the minds of scientists andinventors around the world. Now many are obsessed with it in much the same way as alchemists in their time were obsessed with the idea of ​​obtaining gold from lead. All due to the fact that it is a perpetual motion machine - it will bring a lot of benefits not only in the short term, but also in the distant future. The main thing is to understand that a perpetual motion machine is not quite what many imagine. This is a much more advanced thing, but at the same time, simpler than is commonly believed. And then there are several concepts for such an engine. Let's take a look at some of them.

A perpetual motion machine is something that is impossible even in theory. He contradicts himself.


  • 1 Is it possible to patent a perpetual motion machine
  • 2 What is a perpetual motion machine
  • 3 How to make a perpetual motion machine
    • 3.1 Perpetual motion machine with magnets
    • 3.2 The first perpetual motion machine
    • 3.3 Perpetual motion machine of Archimedes
    • 3.4 Perpetual motion machine on counterweights
  • 4 Why it is impossible to create a perpetual motion machine

Can a perpetual motion machine be patented

First of all, it is worth deciding what to patenta perpetual motion machine is impossible. That is, if you find a way to deceive the laws of physics, of course, they will thank you, but you will not have commercial rights to your invention. Maximum, you will receive a Nobel Prize and can count on worldwide respect. If this suits you, you should try and work in this direction.

Perpetual motion patents ceasedconsidered for a very long time. For example, the US Patent Office has not accepted such applications for over a hundred years, and the Paris Academy of Sciences has not considered designs for such engines since 1775.

What is a perpetual motion machine

If we talk about what is everlasting at allengine, then all basic definitions boil down to the fact that it is an imaginary device that works indefinitely. And most importantly, it must have an efficiency of more than 100%. That is, the amount of energy given out by him must be greater than that which he consumes for work. it perpetual motion machine of the first kind.

In Latin, a perpetual motion machine will be Perpetuum mobile

There is also a concept perpetual motion machine of the second kind... Such a mechanism should receive heat from onetank and completely turn it into work. This type of perpetual motion machine is impossible by definition, since it contradicts the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

It might seem like space in some waycan be called a perpetual motion machine, but this is also not so. The luminaries will sooner or later go out, and the planets, satellites and galaxies that move in space only seem to be eternal. In fact, they gradually dissipate their kinetic energy due to the resistance of the solar wind, the attraction of other objects, heat radiation and even gravitational waves.

This thing has been spinning by itself for billions of years, but it cannot be considered a perpetual motion machine.

In space, this is almost imperceptible, since the distanceand the dimensions of the bodies are huge, and the resistance forces are minimal, but there is still a loss of energy. Simply put, if you give our planet an infinite amount of rotation time, excluding changes in other factors, sooner or later it will simply stop. In fact, everything is a little more complicated and in reality it will be attracted to the Sun, but you get the point.

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We can say that the engine too sooner or laterwill stop if you give it an infinite amount of time (we will not check anyway), but this is precisely why there is a requirement that the perpetual motion machine must produce more energy than consume. Even if he generates a tiny fraction of a percent more energy than he takes, he will be able to provide himself with "fuel".

A bit of humor on the topic of a perpetual motion machine. Here he is!

How to make a perpetual motion machine

There have been countless attempts in the worldattempts to make a perpetual motion machine. The designs were offered very different, but one thing united them - they all did not pass the test and did not become a real perpetual motion machine. Although at first glance it may seem that some of the constructions suggested below will work, but this is a mistake. The design of a magnetic engine can come as close as possible to the real concept of a perpetual motion machine.

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Perpetual motion machine on magnets

The design of a perpetual motion machine on magnets may seem simple and ingenious at the same time, but it has one "but". First of all, a magnet, even the best one, cannot give energy infinitely and its power of magnetism will decrease over time. As a result, the engine will simply stop working. Although initially the idea is really not a bad one.

The idea of ​​a perpetual motion machine began to intensify inminds of inventors with the advent of neodymium magnets. They tried to apply them anywhere, and Michael Brady even made an engine that he patented, although not as an eternal one.

Things like this are a little mesmerizing:

This is what the concept of the first perpetual motion machine looked like.

In reality, such a system does not work. If you make only two tubes on different sides of the wheel, then it will really outweigh it, but when there are many of them, the different position of the liquid in each will still balance the system and there will be no rotation.

Bhaskar had followers who suggestedinstead of liquid, use weights that change their position. Of course, all these projects were doomed to failure, and gradually the original idea of ​​a perpetual motion machine was replaced by others.

One of the variations on the Bhaskar perpetual motion machine.

Perpetual motion machine of Archimedes

In fact, Archimedes himself did not invent anyperpetual motion machine. He only formulated a law according to which the following system works. Anyone who has ever thrown a ball, float or other inflatable object into the water is familiar with this law.

Since what weighs less than waterpushed out to her, it can also be used as a perpetual motion machine and there were similar concepts. For example, you can try to put balls in the system that will float out of the water and spin the engine.

This construction does not take into account only the fact thatit is impossible to restrain the outlet in the tank, and if possible, it will press on the incoming floats with such a force that the floating ones cannot compensate.

The problem is that in a closed system"Wasted" balls must be immersed in water again, and this requires more energy than appears when floating. That is why the system will almost instantly come to equilibrium and stop moving. Unless you force the liquid to be on one side, then it will be impossible to hold it without loss. If you constantly add it, then such a mechanism will no longer meet the basic requirements for a perpetual motion machine.

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Perpetual motion machine on counterweights

Another system of a perpetual motion machine involves the use of an offset system, in which weights suspended from a chain must pull the entire structure along with them.

This is how this system should look and rotate counterclockwise, but it will very quickly come to a state of equilibrium.

This design was proposed by the Dutchmathematician Simon Stevin. 14 balls must be combined in a chain. This chain must be thrown through a triangular prism. According to the idea, on one side there will be twice as many balls and they will pull the entire system. In this case, the balls that hang from below do not participate in the process, since they are balanced and should not interfere with work on a prism.

It sounds great and logical, but the part of the systemwhere there are twice as many balls, has a flatter plane and the component of the gravity of the balls from this side will be less. As a result, the system will regain balance and quickly stop.

This is also not a perpetual motion machine, but just a toy, since kinetic energy will be lost.

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Why it is impossible to create a perpetual motion machine

Firstly, creating a perpetual motion machine is impossible due to the fact that it violates manythe laws of physics formulated and tested for centuries (and millennia). As a result of the movement, it is simply impossible to generate more energy than was expended to set the system in motion.

What if so?

On the other hand, much was previously consideredimpossible. What if humanity has so far failed to find the fundamental mistake of scientists of the past? If you wanted to try it, try it! If you didn't want to do this, but you have an idea that you are ready to share, then do it in our Telegram chat or in the comments to the article.