Research, Technology

How far has science advanced in the creation of prostheses

In recent years, science and technology have madea great way to create prostheses for people who need to replace lost limbs or other body parts. New technologies and materials have made it possible to create more functional and ergonomic prostheses that help people return to a full life. One of the main trends in the development of prostheses is the use of bionic technologies. Bionic prostheses use electromechanical systems to mimic the movements of natural limbs. They can be controlled by muscle signals that are detected by electrodes placed on the surface of the skin. Some prostheses also use artificial intelligence for more precise and efficient control.

Prostheses have been around for a very long time - the first mention of prostheses can be found in ancient Greece and Rome. At that time, people used prostheses made of wood, bronze and iron.

How dentures work

Prostheses are mechanisms that can replaceor improve the functionality of a damaged body caused by injury, disease, or birth defects. They can be created from different materials such as metals, ceramics, plastics, and combinations thereof. How they function is based on the principles of physics and biomechanics and depends on the type and purpose of the prosthesis. For example, prosthetic limbs use mechanical energy generated by the user to control the movement of the prosthesis. Prosthetic eyes use the principle of optics to create an image on the retina of the eye. And hearing prostheses convert sound waves into electrical signals for transmission to the ear.

Dentures can also be made from unusualmaterials. For example, some running prostheses are made from carbon fibers, while swimming prostheses can be made from lightweight materials that allow you to swim more efficiently.

There are many types of prostheses thatreplace various body parts such as limbs, eyes, hearing and dentures. They can be temporary or permanent, removable or directly connected to the patient's body. Some prostheses, such as heart prostheses, help keep people alive by acting as life support devices.

Artificial limbs are one of thethe most common types of prostheses. They consist of three main components: frame, motor and controller. The frame provides strength and structural support for the prosthesis, the motor provides movement for the limb, and the controller controls the movement of the motor and is often controlled by muscle or nervous system signals.

One of the main advantages of artificiallimbs is their ability to mimic natural movements. Most modern prostheses use electrical sensors to determine the position of the limb and control the movement of the motor. This allows users to control the prosthesis with muscle signals and perform various tasks efficiently.

However, despite all the advantages,artificial limbs have their limitations. For example, they may be heavy and clumsy, which may result in fatigue and discomfort for the user. It can also be difficult to achieve fine and precise coordination of movements, especially when performing complex tasks.

What types of prostheses exist

One of the key technologies that broughtA significant breakthrough in the field of prosthetics is 3D printing. With its help, it is now possible to create prostheses that perfectly fit the shape and size of the body, which increases their comfort and efficiency of use. Moreover, thanks to 3D printing, it is now possible to create individually customized prostheses for each patient.

Dentures don't have to be just for humans. Some animals, such as penguins that have lost their legs, may be provided with prosthetic limbs to make it easier for them to move around and find food.

There are several types of prostheses thatused to restore basic body functions. Mechanical prostheses are one of the oldest and most common types of prostheses that allow the return of basic bodily functions such as walking and grasping objects. However, they have some limitations in functionality. More advanced electronic prostheses can be used to restore limb function, vision and hearing. They can be controlled by muscle tension or have built-in sensors that respond to user actions. Electronic prostheses provide users with the ability to communicate, move and carry out everyday tasks.

See also: New high-tech glove will make prostheses more sensitive.

Tissue engineered prostheses are a newdirection in the field of prosthetics. They are created using lab-grown tissues and cells and are used to replace damaged or missing organs and tissues, such as the heart, liver, and skin. Such prostheses can be created from tissues taken from the patient's body or from donor tissues. They have a lower risk of rejection and may provide more natural functionality than other types of dentures.

Another technology is currently under developmentprosthetics - neuroprosthetics. It uses neural interfaces to communicate between the brain and the prosthesis, which allows the patient to control the prosthesis directly with the help of thoughts.

However, despite all the achievements of science, stillthere are many problems that need to be solved. In particular, it is important to ensure the reliability and durability of prostheses, as well as to reduce their cost so that they become affordable for more people. In addition, it must be taken into account that even the most perfect prosthesis cannot replace a completely natural limb.

Advanced prosthesis development

Modern science has made great strides indevelopment of neuroprostheses. Biomedical and electrical engineers have developed a new method for measuring neural activity using light instead of electricity. This could change medical technology, as optrodes, sensors built using liquid crystal technology and integrated optics, can detect nerve impulses in the body of a living animal.

Some prosthetic hands may allow grasping, gripping, and even playing musical instruments.

Professor François Ladoucera said that the team inThe laboratory showed that optrodes work just as well as conventional electrodes for detecting nerve impulses. Optrodes also solve problems that other technologies cannot solve.

One of the problems with conventional electrodesis that it is very difficult to reduce the size of the interface so that thousands of electrodes can connect to thousands of nerves in a very small area. When thousands of electrodes are squeezed and placed closer to each other to connect to biological tissues, their individual resistance increases, which worsens the signal-to-noise ratio and makes it difficult to read the signal. In addition, when compressed and approached, the electrodes begin to interact with each other due to proximity.

Now scientists can register nervepulses that are relatively weak and are measured in microvolts. But in order to process complex networks of nervous and excitable tissue, more optrodes must be used. For example, between the brain and the hand is a bundle of nerves that runs from the cerebral cortex and eventually splits into 5,000 to 10,000 nerves that control the actions of the hand. Creating a similar connection is a very difficult task.

And in order not to miss even more useful information, subscribe to our Telegram and Zen!

However, optrodes detect nerve signals withusing light rather than electricity, eliminating mismatch issues and minimizing crosstalk. This makes it possible to create very tight links in the optical domain without having to pay the price that has to be paid in the electrical domain.

However, this technology requires manyimprovements, and Professor Ladouceur notes that it will probably take many years of research before it becomes a reality. This includes the development of the possibility of bidirectional operation of optrodes. They must be able not only to receive and interpret signals from the brain on their way to the body, but also to receive feedback in the form of nerve impulses returning to the brain.