General, Research, Technology

What is the temperature in space?

From childhood, we all know that inAfrican countries usually have hot weather, and Antarctica is always cold. But have you ever thought about how warm or cold it is in outer space? Temperature is the result of the movement of the molecules that make up all material objects - the faster these tiny particles move, the hotter the object. Since there are no particles in space and it is considered vacuum space, the concept of "temperature" to itcompletely not applicable. However, in order for the answer to the interest of many people to exist, scientists assure that the temperature of the cosmos is "absolute zero". But does this mean that spaceships do not heat up in space to high temperatures and there is always relatively good weather there? Something is not believed, so let's understand.

Neither shorts nor a fur coat will help in outer space - a special suit is necessary

Vacuum - this is a space in which there are no substances, not even air. Translated from Latin, the word "vacuus" translates as "empty."

Weather in space

In short, “absolute zero” isthe lowest temperature that is possible in the Universe is nowhere colder. In Celsius, this figure is -273.15 degrees. At this temperature, atoms, which are the smallest particles of all chemical elements, completely stop moving. There are molecules in outer space, but there are very few of them, so they practically do not interact with each other. There is no movement, and this is a clear sign of "absolute zero", which is described in more detail in this material.

Interesting fact: The coldest air temperature on our planet was recorded in 1983, on the territory of Antarctica. Then the thermometers fell to -89.15 degrees Celsius

Extreme space conditions

So, according to scientists, in outer spacethe temperature is -273.15 degrees Celsius. But this does not mean at all that all objects falling into space instantly gain the same temperature. Like on the surface of our planet, spaceships, satellites and other objects can be heated and cooled, even to extreme levels. But heat transfer in space is possible in only one way.

In general, there are three ways to transfer heat:

  • conductivity which can be observed when heating a metal rod - if one end is heated, the opposite part will also become hot with time;
  • convection, which can be observed when warm air moves from one room to another;
  • radiation, when the elementary particles emitted by space objects like photons (particles of light), electrons and protons combine to form moving particles.

As you may have guessed, in space objectsare heated by the activity of elementary particles - after all, have we already found out that temperature is the result of molecular movements? Photons and other elementary particles can be emitted by the Sun and other space objects.

See also: The sun is the greatest mystery of our star system

How much will they heat up quickly?objects that have fallen into space to cool, directly depends on their location relative to stars and planets, sizes, shapes, and so on. For example, a spaceship flying in space will be literally red-hot from the side of the Sun, and its shadow side will be very cold. The farther the ship is from the celestial body - the greater the difference in the degree of heating will be.

When building spaceships, it is important to consider extreme temperature changes

International space station constantlyis exposed to sunlight. The side that faces the Sun is heated to 260 degrees Celsius. The shadow side, in turn, is cooled to 100 degrees Celsius. The crew of the space station sometimes have to go to the surface of the structure and undergo sharp changes in temperature. Therefore, their suits are equipped with a heating and cooling system, thanks to which space researchers feel relatively comfortable.

My colleague Artem Sutyagin recently wrote about what spacesuits are. It turns out that they are not only cosmic.

The farther from the sun are spaceobjects, the colder they are. For example, the temperature on Pluto, which is very far away, is -240 degrees Celsius. And the coldest place in the Universe is located in the Boomerang nebula - the temperature regime in this region is -272 degrees Celsius.

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All in all, if you are ever fantasticYou’ll find yourself in outer space, you will need a suit, inside which the temperature will be automatically adjusted. But sudden changes in temperature is not the only problem that will await you. In outer space, the human body suffers many changes, which can be read about in this material.